Friday, November 20, 2009

Vierkleur Van Transvaal


Tuesday, October 20, 2009

Optrede

Met geweld kan ons vergeet om hond haaraf te maak, in ons stryd om terug te kry wat ons toekom, m.a.w. Transvaal, Vrystaat en Noord Natal. Daar moet nou drasties ’n fonds gestig word om fondse in te samel vir ons stryd. Ons benodig nie duisende of ’n miljoen nie maar biljoene, dit is ons enigste hoop om die oormag te oorwin.
Hiermee vra ek vir voorstelle van Boere wat ernstig is oor die saak om te kom met voorstelle, gebruik die comments skakel onder aan hierdie pos.

Monday, October 5, 2009

Die ware Boervolk

TVL Skild

VALS en WARE
IDENTITEIT
van die
BOERVOLK


Voorwoord
Opgedra aan die 27,000 BOERE KINDERS en vroue wat tydens die BOERE Holocaust tussen 1900 en 1902 in Britse Konsentrasiekampe omgekom het.
Tydens die twee en 'n half jaar lange "Anglo/Boere - oorlog" (of ander benaming), veg die Afrikaners, dit wil sê, ook al die Kapenaars (Cape-Dutch {Afrikaners}), saam met die Transvaler en Vrystater( Boere), teen die Britte, om te keer dat die Republieke van Transvaal en die Vrystaat se Afrikaner vryheid, deur Brit tot niet gemaak word 
? ?

En so, word daar dan ook beweer, sterf 27,000 Afrikaner vroue en kinders (dus ingesluit derduisende Cape-Dutch {Afrikaner} ) vroue en kinders saam met die BOERE KINDERS in die konsentrasie kampe.
? ?
Die ! valse persepsie van Afrikaner wees, soos hierbo uitgebeeld, is van die valshede waarmee die Boervolk sederd 1902 deur die Afrikaner:- politici, partye, bewegings, groepe, kultuurrade, kerke, media, boek verspreiders, skole en ander instansies, vanuit liberale sowel as konserwatiewe kant, gebreinspoel is, en ook steeds word, en hierdeur dan sy eie unieke volks identiteit, nl. die wêreld bekende Boervolk noemnaam, en sy eie KINDERS in grafte, vergeet en verpand het, vir die valse politieke mite van die AfrikanerDOM.
Daar was nooit 'n Anglo/Afrikaner oorlog gewees, en geen Cape-Dutch(Afrikaner) het ooit saam met die Boere geveg nie, maar wel saam met die Brit, teen die Boere.
Daar was wel 3,000 Boere van die Noord Oos Kaap wie saam met die Boervolk geveg het, hulle was ook gun rebelle gewees nie, dit was hulle wie nie getrek het, maar steeds afkomstig was vanuit dieselfde volks- bloed.
Die stryd was om die Boere Republiekeen nie Suid Afrika('n gedrog wat nie eens bestaan het), te red.
Ook nie vir Cape-Dutch vryheid, maar alleen vir Boere vryheid.
Geen Cape-Dutch(Afrikanerkinders en vroue sterf in die konsentrsiekampe, maar alleen Boere kinders en vroue.
Let ook op, dat daar nooit 27,000 Vroue en kinders dood is, maar wel 24,000 BOERE KINDERS en 3,000 vroue, hierdie valse propaganda is deel van die Afrikaner bedrog teen die Boervolk.
Of het die Cape-Dutch ook in die niet verdwyn, of, is hy die Afrikaner in wolf klere ?
Hierdie valse Identiteit van Afrikaner wees, waarin die Boervolk, polities, vasgevang is na die tot standkoming van die 1910 UNIE en die 1961 / 1994 UNIEALE-republieke, is die oorhoofse rede hoekom hy nie sy vryheid, soewereiniteit en onafkanklikheid kan terugkry nie, want hy deel steeds ander se identiteit, dus ook hul politiek en kopsere.
Om vry te word, moet die Boervolk eers die Afrikaner uit sy siel haal en verwerp, om sy Boere trots te herwin.

IDENTITEIT
INHOUD
  1. INLEIDING 6
  2. DEFINISIES 6
  3. BLANKE NEDERSETTERS 8
  4. DIE KAAP/HOLLANDSE SETLAARS (KOLONIALISTE) 10
  5. ENGELSSPREKENDE BLANKES (SETLAARS) 11
  6. DIE BOERVOLK 12
  7. DIE AFRIKANERS (Ik ben eine "African") 17
  8. 'N INHEEMSE VOLK (DIE BOERVOLK) 19
  9. OPSOMMING 21

1 INLEIDING
1.1 Die internasionale wêreld (asook die meeste Suid Afrikaners) het 'n persepsie dat al die Wit mense in Suid Afrika, 'n uniforme groep is; dat hulle 'n eenheid vorm en dat hulle tot onlangs, gesamentlik verkies het om ander groepe onder die vaandel van apartheid te domineer.
Wat hierdie persepsie nog meer absurd maak, is die feit dat diegene hoofsaaklik gesien word as die "Afrikaners", maar dat die lot dan ook uit die bloute die Boervolk van Transvaal en die Vrystaat, asook die Kapenaar(regte Afrikaners) sou insluit, terwyl die Engelse wat hier woon, geen aandeel in die daad het nie. Die Engelsman word op wonderbaarlike wyse, net eenvoudig nie as deel van hierdie beskuldigings genoem nie.
Hierdie is 'n wanpersepsie, 'n feitelike onakkuraatheid, geskep deur diegene wat die totale politieke mag in die land ten doel gehad het en wat daarna gestrewe het om die enigste inheemse Wit bevolkingsgroep in die land, die Boervolk, in 'n groter geheel (groter wordende nasie - van witmense ) op te geneem het om die Boervolk op daardie wyse te vernietig.

Ook moet gelet word, dat hulle nooit beheer oor die Boere Republieke sou kon behaal, sonder die en ander vorms van onderdrukking, na 1902.
Dit is daarom die doel van hierdie voorlegging, om aan te toon dat daar Blankes in Suid-Afrika is, wat nie deel vorm van hierdie koloniale erfenis nie; wat dus nie deel is van die "Afrikaners", of te wel die "Wit-Afrikaners" wat tot onlangs toe nog as die politieke muishonde van die wêreld beskou was nie. Hierdie groep mense is bekend as die Boervolk.
2 DEFINISIES

2.1 Volgens die Oxford Woordeboek, is die woord "inheems" 'n byvoeglike naamwoord wat beteken "inboorling, behorende op natuurlike wyse tot die landsbodem", (uit die Latynse indigena). 'n Inheemse volk is dus 'n volk wat 'n betrokke gebied bewoon en waar bewys gelewer kan word dat die volk in daardie spesifieke gebied ontstaan het, en nie afkomstig is van enige ander deel van die heelal nie. Hierdie is 'n uiters belangrike en beslissende definisie wat in gedagte gehou moet word wanneer die Blankes van Suid-Afrika se situasie geanaliseer word.??
2.2 Alhoewel die internasionale wêreld reeds vir baie jare al verkeerdelik die Blankes van Suid-Afrika as 'n enkele etniese groep beskou, is daar in der waarheid drie duidelik onderskeibare groepe(volke), naamlik:
· die Engelssprekende Suid-Afrikaners,
· die Afrikaners en
· die Boere
In 1899, word Generaal Butler die waarnemende Goewerneur van die Kaap Kolonie.
Tydens hierdie besoek van Lord Alfred Milner (goewerneur) aan Engeland, laat Butler self ondersoek instel na die sogenaamde "atrocities" van die Boere teen die "uitlanders", die gevolg is dat hy boodskappe na Engeland stuur om vir Milner en Rhodes te stop met hul leuens, hulle wil net die minerale rykdomme bekom sê hy, alles is leuens.
Maar, wat belangriker is, is dat hy die volgende skryf; " The problem here at the southern tip of Africa is that there are three distinct groups of people who cannot live together, as they are different people(nationalities), they are;
· the British,
· the Cape-Dutch and
· the Boers
2.3 Die onderskeid tussen hierdie drie etniese groepe, en in die besonder die laaste twee groepe, nl. die "Cape-Dutch" [Afrikaners] en die "Boere", is van uiterste belang wanneer die regte van die Boervolk as inheemse volk bepaal word.
3 BLANKE SETLAARS
3.1 Alhoewel die eerste Blankes in 1652 aan die Kaap die Goeie Hoop geland het, het hulle nie hierheen gekom as setlaars nie. Hulle was Hollanders wat 'n voorrade depot vir hulle skepe na en vanaf die Ooste, kom vestig het. Die eerste Blanke wat aan wal gestap het, Jan van Riebeeck, het Afrika kort daarna verlaat en nooit weer teruggekeer nie. Hy is dus ook nie, soos vir jare beweer, 'n stam of stigtings vader nie. Ook het van Riebeeck, soos sy base in Holland, nie belanggestel om setlaars hierheen te stuur. Daar het wel klein groepies, af en toe, hier aangekom, en meestel was dit familie, 'n paar Hollanders, of 'n paar los vrouens vir die mans wat alleen hier gebly het.
Hierdie tendens het gegeld vir byna 43 jaar alvorens die eerste setlaars in 1695 hier aangekom het.
3.2 Nadat die voorrade depot ingerig was, was dit egter 'n ander groep Europiërs wat in die Kaap aangekom het, wat 'n kern van ware setlaars in die WesKaap gevorm het. Hierdie setlaars het van verskeie Europese lande soos Duitsland , Holland , Frankryk en 'n paar ander kleiner lande gekom. Ook moet op die volgende gelet word. Daar was 'n aanhoudende gesoebat by die meesters in Holland om nog mense hierheen te stuur, maar dit was nooit goedgekeur tot eers omtrent die jare 1695 nie.
3.3 Baie van hierdie mense was afkomstig van Protestantse Kerkgenootskappe in Europa, en hulle, het as geestelike vlugtelinge ( oorspronklik het die meeste van hierdie mense voorheen uit die weste van Duitsland, en die laaglande, na Holland of nader gevlug weens die Katolieke agtervolgings in daardie en vorige eeue. ) hier aangekom. Hierdie golf van protestantisme het gelei tot die vestiging van 'n sterk Protestantse etiek, insoverre, dat Protestantisme tot vandag toe die oorheersende Christelike geloofsoortuiging in Suidelike-Afrika is. Dit was ook weens die dialek wat hierdie mense gepraat het, afkonstig van Plat-Duits, en Hollands, dat die Boervolk later geken was vir hul eie taal, wat as Hoog-Hollands bekend gestaan het. Hierdie Boere taal is ook tot in die 20ste eeu gepraat, ook in die Unie parlement, totdat dit in die dertiger jare in die parlement verban is as voertaal.
3.4 Dit is hoe die Kaap onder Hollandse bewind daar uitgesien het. Hierdie bewind het egter al hoe meer outokraties en onuithoudbaar geword. Stadig maar seker het 'n groep van hierdie setlaars, baie van wie reeds tevore moes vlug weens vervolging en dus 'n tradisie van onafhanklikheid ontwikkel het, teen die Nederlandse koloniale bewind begin agiteer. Hierdie agtitasie het uitendelik die "Vryburger-beweging" tot gevolg gehad wat druk op die Nederlandse koloniale bewind uitgeoefen het om al groter onafhanklikheid te verkry.
3.5 Die Vryburgers was die eerste Blankes in Suid-Afrika wat deel was van die oorgangstadium vanaf setlaars na 'n inheemse volk, gebore uit Afrika bodem. Toe die Vryburger-beweging begin het was baie van die mense reeds tot twee geslagte van Europa af verwyder. Dit was lede van hierdie gemeenskap wat uit die Kaap begin emigreer het, gemotiveer deur die begeerte om die juk van Nederlandse koloniale regering af te skud.
3.6 Hierdie agitasie teen koloniale bewind, kan beskou word as die eerste tekens van die enigste inheemse Blanke volk van Afrika. Dit is daarom weer eens uiters belangrik om in gedagte te hou dat die eerste anti-koloniale beweging in Afrika, die Blanke Vryburger-beweging was. Dit was die ontkiemingstadium van die Boervolk. Die pogings om kolonialisme te ontvlug was die oorsprong van die Boervolk.
3.7 Dit is egter ook so dat 'n groot groep, eintlik die oorgrote meerderheid van die Blanke setlaars aan die Kaap, nie die Vryburger-beweging ondersteun het nie. Die meeste van hulle was heeltemal tevrede met die koloniale opset, en nog meer tevrede om onder die Nederlandse vlag te bly. Hierdie mense het die kern gevorm wat vandag bekend staan as die "Arikaner" - hoofsaaklik in die Kaap gebaseer. Hierdie groep word in hierdie voorlegging in detail behandel.
3.8 Die derde golf van Blanke setlaars het na 1820 in groot getalle in Suid-Afrika aangekom. Die Britse empire het teen hierdie tyd die Kaap gedurende die Napoleonse oorloë in Europa begin betrek om die Oosterse Seeroete te beskerm. As gevolg van die Britse besetting van die Kaap, het 'n groot getal Engels- sprekende setlaars in die Kaap aangekom. Hulle het hulle taal, godsdiens en ander kulutrele opvattinge met hulle saamgebring.
4 DIE KAAP/NEDERLANDSE SETLAARS
4.1 Toe die Blanke bevolking aan die Kaap oor kolonialisme skeur - soos wat vroeër aangedui is - het diegene wat die koloniale bewind wou ontvlug, uit die Kaap emigreer. Diegene wat egter geen nasionalistiese ideaal gehad het nie, het verkies om hulle bande met Europa te behou en in die Kaap agtergebly. Die mense wat agtergebly het, was uitsluitlik Nederlanders, en toe die Britte die Kaap begin betrek, was die Nederlanders ook heeltemal tevrede daarmee om getroue Britse burgers te word.
4.2 Diegene wat in die Kaap agtergebly het en onder die Boere wat hul onafhanklikheid nagestreef het, het bekend gestaan as die Kaapse Nederlanders (die "Cape Dutch") 'n simbool van hulle verbintenisse met Europa. Hierdie groep het getrou enige Europese koloniale bewind ondersteun en hewige weerstand gebied teen pogings van die vlugtende Boere om hul bande met die koloniale regerings te verbreek.

Hierdie groep het op alle vlakke van die samelewing met die Boere verskil, eers rakende hulle houding jeens kolonialisme en later selfs hulle taal. Dit is byvoorbeeld nie wyd bekend dat daar 'n duidelike verskil in die praatstyl van die Boer en die Kaap/Nederlands is nie.
4.3 Die hewigheid waarmee die Kaapse Nederlanders die Boere opponeer het was onderstreep toe die Boere uiteindelik uit die Kaaps/Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk ge-ekskomunikeer is toe hulle die Kaap verlaat het. Die koerant van destyds, De Zuid-Afrikaan, was die eerste om die "rebelle" te verdoop "emigranten Boeren", en vandaar die naam Boer.
4.4 Hierdie groep van Kaaps/Nederlandse setlaars het dus altoos die boere-gemeenskap se strewe na onafhanklikheid en anti-kolonialisme opponeer, en, tesame met die Britse setlaars, was hulle die koloniale meesters van Suidelike Afrika, en dit terwyl die Boere altoos probeer het om weg te beweeg van hierdie soort mentaliteit en stand van sake.
5 DIE ENGELSSPREKENDE SUID-AFRIKANERS

5.1 Nadat die Britte die eerste keer in 1795 die Kaap betrek het, het die Britte besluit dat Afrika gevoeg moet word by die steeds uitbreidende Britse Empire. Om hierdie rede het die Britse Regering betrokke geraak by die grootskaalse vestiging van Britse burgers in Suid-Afrika. Die eerste besondere groot vestiging was die koms van die Britse Setlaars in 1820. Hulle het hulle eerste in die Kaap gevestig en later ook in Natal.
5.2 Die Britte se koms na die Kaap is belangrik want dit het weer eens daartoe gelei dat die Boere, wat toe reeds aan die wegtrek was uit die Kaap weens hulle verset teen die Nederlandse bewind aan die Kaap, ook die Britte se koloniale bewind teengestaan het.
5.3 Die Boere se rebellie teen die Britse bewind in die Kaap het 'n hoogtepunt bereik met 'n gewapende rebellie in 1812/1813, bekend as die Slagtersnek Rebellie. Alhoewel hierdie rebellie gefaal het, het dit duidelik die verskil tussen die Boere en beide die Nederlands- en Engelssprekende Blanke setlaars, beklemtoon. Die Boere wou geen deel hê in kolonialisasie nie, terwyl die ander groepe bloot kolonialiste was en niks anders nie.
5.4 Die Britte se vestiging in Suid-Afrika het die tweede grootste etniese groepering van Blankes gevorm. Tot vandag toe nog het hulle hul Britse erfenis en aangetrokkenheid tot hul vaderland behou, tot selfs in soverre dat sommige van hulle vandag nog dubbele burgerskap het, of ten minste toegang het tot dubbele burgerskap - Suid-Afrikaans en Brits.
5.5 Hierdie Engelssprekende element het in sy oorgroter meerderheid van sy geskiedenis in Suid-Afrika, lojaal aan Groot Brittanje gebly, en boonop die Boere teengestaan in hul anti-kolonialistiese strewe. Die taal, kultuur en godsdiens van hierdie Britse setlaars vorm nog steeds 'n belangrike deel van hul Europese vaderland.
6 DIE BOERE

6.1 Toe die eerste anti-kolonialistiese beweging onder die Nederlanders in die Kaap begin het, het die vurige Boere ook begin om die Kaap te verlaat in hul soeke na vryheid en onafhanklikheid. Hierdie mense het voortdurend verder en verder van die Kaap af weggetrek en het uiteindelik met die Nguni-trekkers, die Xhosas, kennis gemaak. Die Xhosas was terselfdertyd besig om suidwaarts te trek. Die kennismaking het plaasgevind in die gebied vandag bekend as die Oos-Kaap.
6.2 Die Boervolk- en die Xhosa-trekgeselskappe, het by die Visrivier ontmoet en 'n wyle vertoef. In hierdie tydperk het die Britse Empire reeds die Kaap-kolonie betrek, en die Boere, wat reeds soveel opgeoffer het om hul Blanke Nederlandse koloniale meester te ontvlug, het hulself hierdie keer onder Blanke Britse oorheersing bevind.
6.3 Dit was vanuit die Oos-Kaap dat die eerste beweging van wat bekend geword het as die Groot Trek, ontstaan het. Die Groot Trek was in wese die emigrering, weg vanaf die Britse Empire - net nog 'n bewys dat die eerste anti-koloniale beweging in Afrika, die Boere-beweging was, 'n inheemse volk wat die oorheersing van 'n Europese koloniale mag probeer ontvlug het.
6.4 Die hoofrede vir die Groot Trek was as gevolg van die Britse koloniale meesters wat probeer het om die Boere van die Kaapse grense probeer kolonialiseer het. Daar was ander kleiner faktore ook, maar opsommenderwys kan gesê word dat dit die Boervolk se hartsbegeerte was om vry en onafhanklik van koloniale oorheersing te wees, wat aanleiding tot die Groot Trek gegee het.
6.5 Dit is van kardinale belang om daarop te let dat telkens wanneer na die Groot Trek verwys word, daar elke keer gesê word dat dit die "Boere" was wat aan die Groot Trek deelgeneem het. Daar was geen "Afrikaner" Groot Trek, en daar was ook geen "Afrikaner" Groot Trek Leiers nie, maar uitsluitlik Boere-leiers van die Groot Trek. Dit is 'n verdere verwysing dat in hierdie vroeë stadium reeds die Boervolk 'n eie identiteit ontwikkel het, 'n identiteit afsonderlik van die van die Kaapse Nederlanders en die Engelse setlaars van die Kaap.
6.6 Die Boere het, omdat hulle onafhanklikheid nagestreef het, opgepak en noordwaarts begin uitwyk na wat vandag bekend is as die Oranje-Vrystaat, Transvaal en tot in Natal. Alhoewel daar verspreide groepe van die Nguni-sprekende volkere in hierdie gebiede gewoon het, veral in Natal waar die Zoeloes die gesag gevoer het, was die grootste dele van hierdie gebiede onbewoon weens 'n uitdunningsproses vanweë inter-stam oorloë wat volgens oorlewering uit die geledere van die Zoeloe koning Tsjaka begin is.
6.7 Die eerste Boere-beweging in Natal het gepoog om met die Zoeloe-koning, Dingaan te onderhandel. Hierdie pogings om met die Zoeloe oor grondgebied te onderhandel, het gefaal en die Boere-leiers is vermoor.
6.8 Die Zoeloe-leier was egter verslaan in 'n veldslag wat later bekend geword het as die Slag van Bloedrivier in 1838. Die eerste Boere-republiek is kort daarna in Natal gevestig.
6.9 Alhoewel die Boere in werklikheid reeds lank voor die Slag van Bloedrivier hul eie identiteit gevestig het, is die Slag van Bloedrivier deur die Boere as die simboliese geboorte van die Boervolk beskou, veral omdat die Boere hul oorwinning by Bloedrivier aan 'n Goddelike ingryping toegeskryf het. Ingevolge die Verbond wat die Boere voor die Slag van Bloedrivier met God gesluit het, is belowe dat die betrokke dag as 'n heilige dag gedenk sou word, maar groter nog, dat hulle vir die Here 'n "Huis sou stig", beteken in Bybelse terme, 'n Volk sou stig.
6.10 Die Boere het daarna opnuut onderhandelinge met die Zoeloes aangeknoop. Die nuwe Zoeloe-koning, Mpande, het toegestem dat die Boere 'n deel van Natal kon betrek. Uit hierdie gebeurtenis is dit weer eens duidelik dat selfs in hierdie vroeë stadium het die Boervolk reeds erkenning as inheemse volk geniet. Die Boerevolk was nie as 'n koloniale mag beskou nie. As die Boervolk nie as inheemse volk beskou was nie, bloot as 'n verlengstuk van die Europese koloniale magte, dan sou die Zoeloes sekerlik nie met die Boervolk 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan het nie. Die Zoeloes sou verkies het om direk met die Europese magte te onderhandel het.
6.11 Maar, die Britse Empire wou steeds die Boere kolonialiseer en het daarom in 1840 Natal annekseer. Na 'n paar ligte veldslae teen die Britte, het die Boere oplaas weer 'n keer opgepak en Natal verlaat. Hulle het net 'n klein groepie Boere in Noord Natal agtergelaat.
6.12 Die Boere uit Natal het daarna by hul volksgenote in die Oranje-Vrystaat en Transvaal aangesluit. Die Boere in die OVS en Transvaal was toe ook reeds op pad na volkstatus. Alhoewel daar in daardie stadium ook ander volkere in hierdie dele gewoon het, het hulle die Boere as inheemse volk aanvaar, nogtans het 'n paar grootskaalse botsings tussen die boere en sommige van hierdie ander volkere plaasgevind. Sulke botsings het gewoonlik gehandel oor veediefstal of weiding, probleme wat eintlik as normaal beskou word vir inheemse volke om oor te stry.
6.13 In 1852 was die Britse Empire uiteindelik gedwing om self die Boere se onafhanklikheid tydens die Zandrivier Konvensie te erken. Die jaar 1852 is ongetwyfeld die besliste erkenning ingevolge die Internasionale Reg van die Boere as 'n inheemse volk. In daardie vroeë stadium is nie net een nie, maar twee onafhanklike Boere Republieke deur die wêreld erken. Die Boere se erkenning was 'n kontraktuele verbintenis, net soos wat dit in die geval van enige ander inheemse volk sou wees. Die eenvoudige feit dat die Britse koloniale meester hierdie toedrag van sake aanvaar en onderskryf het, toon dat selfs die Europese magte die Boere se onafhanklikheid erken het, en dat hulle ook aanvaar het dat hierdie vrye volk uit Afika ontspring het en nie een of ander koloniale eksperiment nie.
6.14 Intussen het die Boere hul eie kultuur en taal ontwikkel. Feit is dat die taal wat deur die Boervolk gebesig word, een van die nuutste tale in die wêreld is. Dit is 'n taal uitsonderlik van enige Europese taal en baie van die woordgebruik se oorsprong is in Afrika te vinde en nie in enige Europese taal nie. Taalkundig dan is die taal van die Boervolk in Afrika geskep. Dit is net nog 'n bewys dat die Boere en hul kultuur inheems aan Afrika is en nie 'n koloniale invoerproduk nie.
6.15 Dit is ook van uiterste belang om kennis te neem dat toe melding gemaak is van die onafhanklike republieke, daar altyd verwys is na die "Boere" republieke en nooit na die "Afrikaner" republieke nie. Dit dien dus as bewys dat die Boere 'n afsonderlike identiteit as die Kaaps/Nederlanders gehad het. Hierdie afsonderlike identiteit was bevestig ingevolge die Internasionale Reg by die Zandrivier Konvensie in 1852.
6.16 Alhoewel die Boere gemeen het dat hulle uiteindelik vryheid gevind het weg van kolonialisme, was hulle verkeerd. Die Britse Empire het nog twee aanslae geloods om die Boere te kolonialiseer en die tweede keer was die Britte suksesvol.
6.17 Die eerste aanslag om die Boere te kolonialiseer was met die besetting van Transvaal deur 'n klein Britse kontigent in 1877. Hierdie voorval het direkte aanleiding gegee tot die Eerste Anglo Boere-oorlog (let weer daarop dat reg deur die geskiedenis word gepraat van die "Anglo Boere-oorlog" en nie die "Anglo Afrikaner-oorlog" nie) en teen 1881 is die Britse magte tot so 'n mate deur die Boere verslaan dat die Britte weer gedwing was om die Boere republieke te erken. Hierdie stap het amptelike erkenning by die Londense Konvensie van 1884 verkry. Dit was die tweede keer dat die Boervolk ingevolge die Internasionale Reg erkenning as inheemse volk geniet het.

6.18 Dit is 'n prikkelende gedagte vir die mense van die 1990's om te besef dat die eerste vryheidsoorlog teen 'n koloniale meester in Afrika, juis deur die Boere teen die Blanke Britse kolonialiste geveg was - en dit boonop dekades voordat enige Swart vryheidsoorloë geveg was. Daar kan selfs geredeneer word dat alleenlik 'n inheemse volk 'n vryheidsoorlog kan regverdig. Nogtans 
is dit net weer 'n keer 'n bewys dat die Boere 'n inheemse volk is.
6.19 Die tweede poging deur die Britte om die Boere te kolonialiseer, het tot die Tweede Anglo Boere-oorlog in 1898-1902 aanleiding gegee (Weer moet daarop gelet word dat dit die Anglo Boere-oorlog was en nie die Anglo Afrikaner-oorlog nie). Hierdie oorlog het gelei tot die ontwikkeling deur die Boere van die metode van gorilla-oorlogvoering. Dit is sedertdien deur vryheidsbewegings reg oor die wêreld gebruik. Alhoewel die Boere soos helde teen die oormag geveg het, het die Britte 'n wrede en tot nou toe onbekende wyse van oorlogvoering gebruik - hulle het die Boer-vroue en kinders bymekaargemaak en hulle in konsentrasie- kampe regoor Suid-Afrika ingeperk. In hierdie konsentrasiekampe het sowat 27,000 vroue en kinders gesterf weens geregtelike teregstellings, hongersnood en mishandeling.Sowat 20% van die Boere-bevolking is op die wyse uitgewis.

6.20 Teen sulke onmenslike optrede kon die Boere nie veg nie en uiteindelik het die Britte daarin geslaag om die Boere in 1902 te kolonialiseer, toe die Verdrag van Vereeniging, wat ook die einde van die Tweede Anglo Boere-oorlog was, onderteken is. Maar, selfs in hulle nederlaag, het die Boere steeds erkenning ingevolge die Internasionale Reg, ervaar.
6.21 Die houding van die Kaaps/Nederlanders en die Engelse setlaars tydens hierdie oorlog, lewer ook verdere bewys dat hierdie twee groepe hulself nie met die Boervolk geassosieer het nie. Alhoewel 'n paar Kaaps/Nederlanders wel die wapen opgeneem het en aan die kant van die Boere geveg het (hulle het gou as die "Kaapse Rebelle" bekend gestaan en was aan ernstige strawwe onderworpe as hulle gevang was) het die oorgroter meerderheid van die Kaaps/Nederlanders en die Engelse setlaars in die Kaap en Natal die Britse kolonialisering van Suid- Afrika gesteun. Dit het in daardie tydvak ook die kolonialisering van vandag se BotswanaZimbabweZambia en gebiede verder noord, ingesluit.
6.22 Die Verdrag van Vereeniging het dus beteken die onderwerping van die Boere aan die Blanke Europese koloniale meesters - 'n lot wat 'n menigte ander inheemse volkere te beurt geval het, en dit, terwyl die Britte en ander Europese empires steeds Afrika en ander wêrelddele as hul eie persoonlike besitting beskou het. Die Boere se geval was egter uniek daarin dat hulle die enigste Blanke inheemse volk was wat aan koloniale gesag onderwerp is - 'n volk wat deur die Britse Uitsaaikorporasie genoem is "Die Wit Stam van Afrika".
7 DIE "AFRIKANERS"

7.1 Aan die einde van die Tweede Anglo Boere-oorlog was daar dus drie sterk onderskeibare etniese groepe onder die breë spektrum van die Blanke bevolking in Suid-Afrika:
  • die internasionaal erkende inheemse Boerevolk;
  • die Kaaps/Nederlandse Setlaars, trou aan die Britse Empire en
  • die Engelssprekende Wit setlaars, wat ook trou aan die Britse empire was.
7.2 Die Britse Empire het besef dat hulle die Boere vir eens en vir altyd onder beheer moes kry en 'n plan is toe bedink om die Boere Republieke te neutraliseer - 'n plan om 'n soort "eenheid" tussen die Boere en die ander twee Wit segmente in die Britse kolonies in Suid-Afrika te bewerk.
7.3 Die nasionale konvensie van 1908, was die breinkind van die Britse meesters van Suidelike Afrika. Hulle het gesorg vir die skepping van die Unie van Suid- Afrika. Hierdie unie het bestaan uit die voormalige Kaap Kolonie, die Natal Kolonie en die twee voormalige Boere Republieke. Hierdie unie was nie bloot 'n geografiese "gerief" nie, maar 'n doelbewuste plan om te probeer om die Boere, wat onafhanklik wou wees, te vermeng met die Kaap-Nederlanders en die Engelse setlaars.
7.4 Dit is noodwendig dat mens daarop moet let dat die Britse empire hierdie tegniek van hulle ook in ander dele van Afrika toegepas het, soos onder meer Nyassaland (Malawi), Noord-Rhodesië (Zambië) en Suid-Rhodesië (Zimbabwe).
7.5 Die voorste verteenwoordiger van die Britse Empire in Suid-Afrika, Sir Alfred Milner, het dit so gestel: "Die nuwe taktiek (om die Boere te onderwerp) moet wees om die onderskeie gebiede van Brits Suid-Afrika te konsolideer in een nasie. Alhoewel die konsolidering aanvanklik die Boere in politieke beheer van die ganse Suid-Afrika sal plaas, sal dit, ironies genoeg, uiteindelik tot hulle val lei".
7.6 Dit is natuurlik presies wat gebeur het, maar nie voordat 'n nuwe naam vir die nuwe "nasie" waarvan Milner gepraat het, ontwikkel is nie. Hulle sou nie daarmee voortgaan om die nuwe nasie 'n "Boere-staat" te noem nie want die Boere was toe 'n onderwerpte volk. Hulle kon dit ook nie 'n Kaaps/Nederlandse staat noem nie want die Nederlandse kolonialiste was toe reeds Britse kolonialiste. Om ooglopende redes kon dit ook nie 'n Britse staat genoem word nie. Die antwoord was in 'n algemene term en so is die inwoners van die nuutgevonde unie "Afrikaners" genoem. Alhoewel die woord einlik "African" (Swartmens) beteken, is dit deur 'n groep Kaaps/Ne-derlandse propagandiste onder SJ du Toit in 1880 in literatuurwerke verpolitiseer (Dit was ook dieselfde jaar waarin die Boere die wapen teen die Britse kolonialiste opgeneem het).
Dit was toe dat besluit was om die Boere, die Kaaps/Nederlanders en die Engelssprekende Wit bevolkings te vermeng en hulle tot die versamelnaam "Afrikaners" te verdoop in plaas daarvan om na al drie volgens hul etniese grondslae te verwys het.
7.7 Dit is dan hoe die wêreld begin hoor het van "Afrikaners", alhoewel daar net 80 jaar gelede, nog nie so 'n woord in die internasionale woordgebruik was nie.
7.8 Deur die Boere in die Unie van Suid-Afrika in te dwing het die Britte die Boere mede-verantwoordelik gemaak vir die beleid van rasse-segregasie, (segregation act) of apartheid soos dit deur die Afrikaners vertaal is, 'n beleid wat natuurlik deur die Britse koloniale regering gemaak en in wetgewing vervat is.
7.9 Die nuwe "Afrikaners" - in der waarheid eintlik 'n koalisie van die drie Wit groeperinge - het hulle bes probeer om die rasse en geografiese nalatenskap van die Britse koloniale tye te handhaaf. Dit was as gevolg van hierdie ramp, dat die beleid van Apartheid ontwikkel is.
7.10 Dit is van kardinale belang om daarop te let dat die Boere, wat onwillig in die Uniewording van Suid-Afrika ingesleep is, by die eerste beste geleentheid probeer het om hulself te bevry. Dit is wat gelei het tot die 1914 Boere rebellie, wat geëindig het toe sekere generaals uit die Boere-era doodgemaak of in tronke gestop is deur die pro-Britse Unie van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering.
7.11 Dit is dus onregverdig van die internasionale wêreld om die "Boere" te beskou as die mense wat verantwoordelik is vir dit wat in Suid-Afrika plaasgevind het in die tweede deel van die 20e eeu. Die Boere was net soveel slagoffers van die koloniale magte as wat menigte ander inheemse volk in Suid-Afrika was.
7.12 Milner se woorde (soos in 7.5 hier bo) is bewaarheid. Deur die Boere in die valse Unie-wording van Suid-Afrika in te gedwing het, is die Boere gedwing om hulle aan die breë Suid-Afrikaanse Britse kolonie te onderwerp.
8 'N INHEEMSE VOLK

8.1 Die valse Unie-wording van Suid-Afrika was 'n berekende poging om die oorspronklike Britse beleid van rasse-segregasie in Suid-Afrika te laat geld en verder uit te bou om uiteindelik te gelei het tot die 1994-verkiesing en die bewindsoorname van die African National Congress.
8.2 Die bewindsverandering beteken egter glad nie dat die onderliggende redes vir die val van die Unie van Suid-Afrika (later die Republiek van Suid-Afrika), uit die weg geruim is nie. Daardie redes bestaan steeds, en dit is die realiteit dat daar verskeie etniese groepe, inheemse volkere, in die groter Suid-Afrika is wat almal stry om hul eie geografiese gebiede en leefruimte.
8.3 Die Boervolk is een van hierdie inheemse volkere. Die Boervolk het nie verdwyn nie. Die Britse Empire het probeer om die Boere uit hulle volkskap te manuvreer, maar in werklikheid het hulle nie daarin geslaag nie.
8.4 Die bestaan van die Boervolk het niks in gemeen met rassisme of apartheid nie. Die Boervolk het bestaan lank voordat daar Apartheid was. Die Boervolk is 'n goed gevestigde inheemse volk wat die eerste anti-koloniale vryheidsoorloë in Afrika geveg het. Dit het geen verskil gemaak dat die kolonialiste ook Wit was nie. As die Boere, volgens die wêreldmening, eenvoudig net "wit rassiste" was, dan sou die Boere nooit die wapen teen Wit kolonialiste opgeneem het nie!
8.5 Die feit dat die Boere onderwerp was, neem hoegenaamd nie die feit weg dat die Boere 'n eie volk is nie. Die Boervolk het sy eie unieke geskiedenis, sy eie tradisies, feesdae, politieke dispensasie, politieke filosofie, hulle het hul eie grondgebied gehad (Staat), eie simbole, eie vlae, eie volksliedere, ens. - EN DIT ALLES HET UIT DIE AFRIKA BODEM ONTWIKKEL! Die Boervolk is dus 'n ware inheemse volk, en dit in kontras met die ander twee Wit etniese groepe in Suid-Afrika, wat self niks nuuts of oorspronklik ontwikkel het nie, maar trou gebly het aan die koloniale meesters se embleme en tradisies.
8.6 Die Boere vra nie om 'n Staat of gebied vir die "Blankes" van Suid-Afrika nie. Dit is 'n klug waarmee weggedoen moet word vir eens en vir altyd. Al wat die Boere wil hê is 'n eie onafhanklike gebied, net soos wat hulle gehad het voordat die Wit kolonialiste hulle van vervreem het. Niks meer nie en niks minder nie, word vereis. Ons herhaal: Hierdie het niks met rassisme of ras te doen nie. Hierdie is eenvoudig die begeerte van 'n inheemse volk om hulself te wees en hulself in hul eie geografiese gebied te regeer.

9 OPSOMMING

9.1 Die Boervolk onderskryf die 42 Artikels van die Konsep Deklarasie van die VN se Sub-Kommissie oor die Regte van Inheemse Volkere ten volle en is bereid om 'n ondersteunende rol te speel om daardie ideale erken te kry vir wie ook al daarvoor kwalifiseer.

9.2 Die Boervolk is die enigste Wit faksie in Suid-Afrika wat die status van "inheemse volk" regverdig en na regte dus selfregering binne 'n eie geografiese gebied mag opeis.

9.3 Die Boere Verkiesingskommissie is in 1995 in die lewe geroep om pogings te koördineer om te verseker dat demokraties verkose Boere-verteenwoordigers in plek geplaas kan word om in enige forum met gesag namens die Boervolk te kan praat en handel. 'n Afgevaardigde van die Boere Verkiesingsraad en die latere Volksraad na byvoorbeeld die VN, sal daarom altyd 'n demokraties verkose verteenwoordiger van die Boervolk wees, en nie van 'n politieke party nie.

9.4 In hierdie stadium is dit onseker wanneer die eerste Boere-volksverkiesing sal plaasvind, maar oorweging word daaraan gegee om intussen 'n interim verteenwoordigende liggaam daar te stel.







Hierdie dokument kan gratis afgelaai word by http://www.patenttrade.net dit is in MSWord formaat, geset in A5 boek formaat en kan as ’n boek uitgedruk word.

Thursday, October 1, 2009

http://www.patenttrade.net

Who Are The Boer's

Vir Afrikaans klik lings op menu


WHO ARE THE BOERS?
Dedicated to the 24, 000 Boer children and 3,000 woman who
died in the Great Boer Holocaust of 1900-1902.
THE cries of the dying children have been scattered by time, but the message of sacrifice and struggle which they carried can still be heard, the sound of distant drumming, the march of feet, the legions of the dead marching on. They beckon on those left behind: find the strength to carry on, for we died not in vain.
Foreword by the author
THIS work has in essence to do with the difference between culture, race and nation-hood. Too often, either through ignorance, indifference or maliciousness, the distinctions between these three concepts are blurred, obscuring the real drivers of history and preventing an understanding of the true causes of events.
A race can be defined as a group of individuals who share broadly the same common genetic characteristics. In this way, broadly speaking, the peoples of Europe share a common genetic inheritance which can be seen through their physical appearance.
The same applies, broadly speaking, to the other main racial groups around the world: the Black (Negroid); the Mongolian (Asian) and so on. This common genetic heritage defines not only the different races' physical appearance, but also (and more controversially), their intelligence and cognitive abilities.
Nationhood can be defined as the feeling of unity experienced by a group of individuals, and not necessarily racially defined. It is possible for a collection of individuals from different races to claim a common nationhood, depending on how that nation defines itself.
This is linked to the concept of culture: for example, although the peoples of Europe share more or less a common genetic heritage, no-one in their right mind will claim that Irish culture is identical to that of, say, Austrian. The fact remains that cultures differ, even amongst virtually identical racial groupings.
It is this difference in culture which forms the basis of this paper.
It is important to note that culture is transferable. An example: if a German born baby is taken at birth and raised in a Scottish household, that child will, culturally speaking, be a Scotsman first, and then a White person second. Being a German will not even rate as a third place.
In this way a nation known as Boers has come into existence in South Africa. The Boers are a collection of peoples originating in Europe who have coalesced into a culturally, and even ideologically, uniform group which has set them apart from others in Africa - including Whites who have not made the cultural shift.
The German, Dutch, French, Belgian, Danish, English and Irish surnames one sees amongst this group testifies to the transferability of culture - and also to the unique blending process which has given rise to one of the most hardy indigenous peoples of Southern Africa.
It is towards a greater understanding of the drivers of culture, race and nationhood, that this work is presented to the reader.
Arthur Kemp
Historical note:
The outline of this paper started life as a submission to the United Nations Sub Commission on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples when the Commission held its annual meeting in Geneva, Switzerland in June 1995.
1. Introduction
2. Definitions
3. White Settlement
4. The Cape Dutch Settlers
5. The British South Africans
6. The Boers
7. The Afrikaners
8. An Indigenous People
9. Conclusion
1. Introduction
There is a conception held by the outside world - and indeed by many within South Africa - that all the White inhabitants of South Africa are a uniform group - that they are all united and until very recently, all wished to dominate other peoples under the banner of Apartheid.
This is a misconception, a factual inaccuracy, perpetrated by those who had either absolute political power in South Africa as their aim, or who wished to see the only indigenous White people of Southern Africa, the Boers, be taken up and destroyed in a larger whole.
There are Whites in South Africa who are not part of the colonial heritage; who are not part of the "white South Africans" who until recently were regarded as the polecats of the world. This group of people is known as the Boers.
2. Definitions
According to the Oxford Dictionary, "indigenous" is an adjective meaning "native, belonging naturally to the soil," (from the Latin indigena).
An indigenous people is therefore a people occupying a territory whose roots can be shown to have come from that particular territory, and not some other part of the globe. This is a crucial definition to bear in mind when the Whites of South Africa are analysed.
Although the outside world has now for many years wrongly regarded the Whites of South Africa as a single ethnic group, there are in fact three distinct ethnic groupings within the White population:
(i) the British South Africans,
(ii) the Afrikaners,(always in past refered to as Cape-Dutch) and
(iii) the Boers.
The distinction between these three ethnic groupings, and particularly the last two (the "Afrikaners" and the "Boers") is of crucial importance in determining the Boers' rights as an indigenous people.
3. White Settlement
Although the first Whites landed at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, they did not come as settlers. They were Hollanders who came to set up a refueling station for their ships traveling to and from the east. The first White Hollander ashore, Jan van Riebeeck, in fact left Africa shortly afterwards and never returned.
It was however a number of other Europeans who came to the Cape shortly after this Dutch supply station had been set up, who formed a core of real settlers, based around the Western Cape. These settlers came from various European countries such as Germany, Holland, France and a number of other smaller nations.
Many of these people were members of the Protestant Churches in Europe, and came as religious refugees. This wave of Protestants firmly established a Protestant ethic group in South Africa to the extent that to this day Protestantism is the dominant Christian religion in the country.
The Cape was all this while under Dutch rule, which became increasingly autocratic and intolerable. Slowly but surely a section of these white settlers, many of whom had already once fled persecution and therefore had an already established tradition of independence, began to agitate against the Dutch colonial rule. This agitation resulted in the "Vryburger" movement (the "Free Burgers") which pressed the Dutch colonialists for more and more independence.
The Free Burgers were the first Whites in South Africa to make the transition from "settlers" to an indigenous people growing "out of the soil". Most of the Vryburgers had been born in Southern Africa, and many were two or more generations removed from Europe already. It was members of this community which started migrating away from the Cape, motivated by a desire to escape Dutch Colonial rule.
This agitation against colonial rule can be said to be the first origins of the only White indigenous people of Africa. It is therefore crucial to bear in mind that the very first anti-colonial movement in Africa was the White Vryburger movement - which was the Boer nation in germination. These attempts to escape colonialism were the origin of the Boer people.
However, it is also equally true that a large number- in fact the majority - of White settlers at the Cape did not support the Vryburger movement. Most of them were quite happy with the colonial situation, and perfectly happy to stay under the Dutch flag.
These people formed the core of what is today known as the "Afrikaner" people - mainly Cape based, and were always referred to in history as the Cape-Dutch. This group is dealt with in detail below.
A third wave of White settlers arrived in South Africa in large numbers after 1820. The British Empire had by this stage occupied the Cape during the Napoleonic wars in Europe to protect the eastern Sea Route.
As a result of the British occupation of the Cape, a large number of English speaking settlers arrived in the Cape, bringing with them their language, religion and other cultural expressions.
4. The Cape Dutch Settlers
When the White population at the Cape split over the colonial issue - as detailed above, those who wanted to escape colonial rule migrated away from the Cape, while those who had no nationalistic zeal and who wished to keep their links with Europe stayed behind.
These people who stayed behind were all Dutch citizens, and when the British occupied the Cape, were perfectly happy to become loyal British vassals.
Those who stayed behind in the Cape became known amongst the independence minded Boers as the "Cape Dutch" - symbolizing their attachment to Europe. This group loyally supported any European colonial government, and vehemently opposed all attempts by the fledgling Boer population to break ties with the colonial governments.
This group stood in strong opposition to the fledgling Boer population and differed with them on all levels - starting with their approach to colonialism and extending all the way through even to language. It is not widely known for example that there are for example marked accent and pronunciation differences between the Boers and the "Cape Dutch", futhermore there is also another language difference, but this analogy will then probably have to be douled is size.
The vehemence with which the Cape Dutch opposed the Boer population was underlined when the Boers were excommunicated from the Cape Dutch Reformed Church when they moved away from the Cape.
This group of Cape Dutch settlers therefore always opposed the Boers' drive for independence and anti-colonialism, and, along with the British settlers, were the true colonial masters of Southern Africa, while the Boers always tried to escape from this mentality and state of affairs.
5. The British South Africans
After the British occupied the Cape for the first time in 1795, the British decided that Africa should be added to the then expanding British Empire. For this purpose the British government engaged in large scale settlement of its citizens in South Africa.
The first large wave came in 1820, and these people settled first in the Cape and then later in what became known as Natal. While a few of the British settlers immediately assimilated themselves in the mindset of the Boer frontiersmen, a large number retained the British link.
The reaction of the Boers to the British occupation of the Cape is important because it provided an impetus for the continuation of the migratory process away from the Western Cape, a process which had already started in protest against the White Dutch colonial rule.
The Boer rebellion against British rule in the Cape reached a high point with an armed rebellion in 1812\1813, known as the Slagtersnek rebellion. Although this rebellion failed, it did exemplify what the difference between the Boers and the White settlers - both Dutch speaking, it seems at first, but the Boer with their mostly German ancestry, spoke what was actually also known as High-Dutch, having lived in Holland for between 100 to 150 years before coming to the Cape and English speaking - was all about).
The Boers wanted independence and not to be part of a colonial expedition, while the other settlers were just colonists and nothing else.
The British settlement in South Africa formed the second major ethnic grouping of Whites in South Africa. To this day they have retained their British heritage and affinity for their homeland, even down to the extent of most of them having dual nationality or at least access to such dual nationality - South African and British.
This British element, for the greatest part, has remained loyal to Great Britain throughout their history in South Africa, and needless to say, actively opposed the Boers' anti-colonization drive as well. The culture of these British settlers is still firmly part of their European homeland.
This does not however counteract that fact that a portion of English speakers actively identified themselves with the Boer cause - then and now. Those who did, and do today, are assimilated into the Boers as quickly as other nationalities are.
6. The Boers
As the first anti-colonialist drive began under the Dutch colony in the Cape, so did the most zealous "Boers" (the word originally means a farmer) begin to move away from the Cape in search of freedom and independence. These people were continually moving further and further away from the Cape and eventually met the first great Nguni migrations - the Xhosa people - who were moving South at the same time. This meeting took place in what is today known as the Eastern Cape.
As the two great migrations - Boer and Xhosa - met at the Fish River in the Eastern Cape, so did these two migrations stop for a while. In the interim however, the British Empire occupied the Cape Colony, and the Boers, who had sacrificed so much to escape their White colonial Dutch masters, once again found themselves under White British rule.
It was from the Eastern Cape that the first of what has become known as the Great Trek movements started. This Great Trek was in fact the migration of the Boer people away from the British Empire - proof yet again that the first anti-colonial movement in Africa was a Boer movement - an indigenous people trying to escape colonization by an European power. In many ways this of course mirrored events in North America.
The main cause of the Great Trek was the British colonial masters trying to colonize the Boers of the Cape frontiers. There were other smaller factors, but it can be said in summation that it was the Boers' desire to be free and independent of colonial rule which caused the Great Trek.
It is of crucial importance to note that whenever reference is made to the Great Trek, history writers always refer to the "Boers" who took part in the great Trek. There was no "Afrikaner" Great Trek, and there were no "Afrikaner" Great Trek Leaders, just Boer Great Trek leaders. This is an indication that at this stage already the Boers had developed an identity of their own, as distinct from the Cape Dutch and English settlers of the Cape.
The independence minded Boers packed up their belongings and headed north - into what today is known as the Orange Free State, Transvaal and into Natal.
Although there were scattered Nguni speaking peoples living in these territories, particularly in Natal where the Zulus held sway, large parts of these territories were vacant, having been decimated by the Difaquane, or inter tribal wars said to have originated with the Zulu King Shaka.
The first Boer movement into Natal attempted to negotiate land from the Zulu King, Dingaan. These attempts to trade land with the Zulu ended in failure and the Boer leaders were murdered.
The Zulu army was however defeated at a Battle which became known as the Battle of Blood River in 1838, and the first Boer Republic was established in Natal shortly thereafter.
The Battle of Blood River is regarded by Boers as the symbolic birth of their nationhood, although of course in reality the Boers had established an own identity long before this event. The reason why the Boers however regard the battle as being the symbolic birth of their nation was that they felt that their victory against overwhelming odds was divinely inspired. The Boer Trekkers had taken an oath to the Christian God that if they were given the victory that day they would hold the day as holy - and the Boers have held this tradition ever since.
Immediately after the Battle of Blood River - and the defeat of Dingaan - the Boers renewed negotiations with the Zulus, and their new King, Mpande. The new Zulu King agreed to let the Boers have territory in Natal. It can be seen that from this early period then, the Boers were recognized by other peoples in Southern Africa as an independent nation and not part of the colonial governments - in other words already then they were recognized as an indigenous people.
However, the British Empire still wished to colonize the Boers, and in 1840 annexed Natal. After a few skirmishes with the British, the Boers once again packed up their belongings and left Natal, leaving behind only a small number in Northern Natal.
The Boers from Natal then went and joined their fellow Boers in the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, which had in the meantime been put on the road to nationhood as well.
One of the major clashes of this period took place at a place called Vegkop in 1836, where a Boer party was attacked by an advance army of Matabeles, many miles before the Boers had actually penetrated Matabele territory. The Matabele were defeated, and fled across the Limpopo river, where they are to this day, in what is now called Zimbabwe.
While there were scattered Black indigenous tribes living in the territories which became know as the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, there were very few other major clashes between them and the Boers. When such clashes did take place, they were usually over matters such as stock or grazing rights - things over which indigenous peoples would clash, rather than the battles of conquest which conventional colonisation produces.
In 1852 the British Empire recognised Boer independence at the Sand River Convention. This year marks the firm establishment of the Boers as an indigenous people in international law, in the same manner in which American independence was achieved.
At this early stage not one, but two independent Boer Republics were recognized by the international world, and were granted contractual capacity as with any other independent indigenous nation. The mere fact that the British colonial masters accepted this state of affairs shows that even the European powers recognized the independence of the Boer nation, and also accepted that this independent was not a colonial experiment.
The Boers had in the interim developed their own culture and language - in fact the language spoken by the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State Republics is one of the newest languages on earth. Some of its words have origins in Africa - and not in any European language.
Linguistically then, the language of the Boers was created in Africa - yet another indication that the Boers and their culture are indigenous to Africa, and not a colonial import.
It is also of crucial importance to note that when any mention is made of the independent republics, they are always called "Boer Republics" - and never "Afrikaner Republics". This is of course confirmation that the Boers had a separate identity from the Cape Dutch and British settlers. This separate identity was confirmed in International Law by the Sand River Convention of 1852.
Although the Boers though they had at last found freedom from colonialism, they were wrong. The British Empire launched two more attempts to recolonise them - the second time being successful.
The first attempt to colonize the Boers came with the occupation of the Transvaal by a small British contingent in 1877. This event led directly to the First Anglo Boer War (note again that it is called an "Anglo Boer War" and not an "Anglo-Afrikaner" war) and by 1881 the British forces had been defeated by the Boers to such an extent that the British were forced to once again recognize the independence of the Boer republics. This recognition was given formal effect by the London Convention of 1884 - the second time that the Boers had been recognized as an independent and indigenous people in international law.
It is a sobering thought to realize that the very first liberation war against colonial masters was in fact fought by the White Boers against the White British colonialist - preceding any Black liberation war by many decades. It can be argued that only an indigenous people can wage a liberation war, and that this therefore shows once again that the Boers had by this stage firmly established themselves as an indigenous people of Africa.
The second attempt by the British to colonize the Boers resulted in the Second Anglo Boer War of 1889-1902 (once again note that it is called the Anglo-Boer war and not the Anglo Afrikaner war). This war resulted in the development by the Boers of the guerrilla warfare method, since used by many liberation movements in all parts of the world. Although the Boers fought bravely against overwhelming odds, the British used a cruel and till then unheard of measure of fighting - they rounded up as many Boer children and women as they could find and put them into concentration camps scattered around South Africa. In these camps, as a result of judicial executions, starvation, disease and ill treatment, some 24,000 Boer children(nearly 50% of the Boer child population), and 3,000 women died - some 25 percent of the total Boer population of the time.
Against such inhumane methods the Boers could not fight, and eventually the British succeeded in their dream of colonising the entire Southern Africa in 1902, when the treaty of Vereeniging, ending the Second Anglo Boer War, was signed. Even in defeat, the Boers were recognized under international law.
Here it must be noted what the 7th article of the peace treaty of Vereeniging in 1902 stipulated “ 7. MILITARY ADMINISTRATION in the TRANSVAAL and ORANGE RIVER COLONY will at the earliest possible date be succeeded by CIVIL GOVERNMENT, and, as soon as circumstances permit, Representative Institutions, leading up to self-Government, will be introduced.
The position of the Cape Dutch and British settlers during this conflict also goes to show that these people did not associate themselves with the Boers. Although a few from the Cape did take up arms and fight on the side of the Boers, (they became known as the "Cape rebels – and were from the north-east region, where the Boers of the republics originated from during the Great-Trek, and were mainly also still family members" and for this reason - they were severely punished if caught) the vast majority of the Cape Dutch and British settlers in the Cape and Natal supported the British colonization of Southern Africa, which then also included today's Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and territories even further north.
The treaty of Vereeniging therefore marks the subjugation of the Boers by White European colonial masters - a fate shared by countless other indigenous peoples while the British and other European empires still regarded Africa and other parts of the world as their personal possession. The Boers were however unique in that they were the only White indigenous people to be subjected in this way.
7. The Afrikaners
Thus at the time of the ending of the Second Anglo Boer War in 1902, there were three distinct ethnic groupings amongst the broad White population of South Africa:
(i) the internationally recognized and indigenous Boer people;
(ii) the Cape Dutch Settlers, loyal to the British Empire; and
(iii) the British settlers, also loyal to the British Empire.
The British Empire realized that it had to bring the Boers under control for once and for all,(this was initiated when there was again talk amongst the Boers in 1905, that they may have to go to war against the British again to regain their independence) and therefore devised a plan to neutralize the Boer Republics - a plan to make them join up with the other two White segments of their colonies in South Africa.
The British masters of Southern Africa therefore engineered the National Convention of 1908, which saw the creation of the Union of South Africa.
This Convention was very clearly dominated by the British and their useful
Idiots, namely 3 Boer Generals, who were not very well known in the Boer war, and had plainly been bought over – to partake in the 10 man representative Convention, the others were very well chosen to be from the Cape-Colony and Natal – all therefore anti-Boer) This union consisted of the former Cape Colony, the Natal colony, and the two former Boer Republics. This union was not merely a geographic convenience, but a deliberate plan to try and destroy the independence minded Boers by mingling them with the Cape Dutch and British settlers.
It is worth noting that the British Empire used their technique in other parts of Africa as well - reference can be made to the short lived federation of Nyasaland (Malawi); Northern Rhodesia (Zambia); and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) to name but one.
The prime representative of the British Empire in South Africa, Sir Alfred Milner, put it this way: "The new tactic (to subjugate the Boers) must be to consolidate the different areas of British South Africa into one nation. Although unification will initially put the Boers into political control of the entire South Africa, it will, ironically, eventually lead to their final downfall."
This was of course precisely what happened - but not until a new name had been developed for the new "nation" which Milner spoke about. They could not continue to call the new nation a "Boer" state, because the Boers had been subjugated.
They could not call it a "Cape Dutch" state, as the Dutch colonialists were now British colonialists, and they could not call it a British state, for obvious reasons. The answer then was to give a general term to all the White inhabitants of the new union - “Afrikaners". Although the word originally meant "African" it was politicized by a group of Western Cape Dutch propagandists under one SJ du Toit in 1880 (the same year the Boers in the Transvaal took up arms to fight the British colonialists) in literature of the time. It was then decided to try and blend the Boers into the Cape Dutch and British populations by calling them all Afrikaners instead of referring to their real cultural bases.
This then is how the world began to hear of "Afrikaners" - although only 80 years ago there was no such word in the international vocabulary.
That the concept of an Afrikaner is all embracing is underlined by the fact that in 1998 the former Afrikaner Broederbond (now called the Afrikaner Bond) announced that it classified all those sharing a broad Afrikanerism to be Afrikaners - to this end they acknowledged that many Cape Coloureds, also known as the Brown People, who speak Afrikaans and who attend a Dutch Reformed Church are Brown Afrikaners. In reality they are of course correct.
This illustrates the difference between Boers and Afrikaners in a very vivid way: A Coloured will readily agree with the definition that he is an Afrikaner, but will emphatically deny being a Boer. If Boers and Afrikaners are the same thing, why the differentiation in the view of other groups?
By forcing the Boers into the Union of South Africa, the British made them co-responsible for the policy of racial segregation, which had of course been established and legislated by the British colonial government.
The new "Afrikaners" - in fact a coalition of Cape Dutch, British and some Boers - tried as best they could to come to grips with the racial and geographic legacy left to them from the British colonial times - and it was from this disaster that the policy of Apartheid was developed.
It is of supreme importance to note here that the Boers were dragged unwillingly into the Union of South Africa - and at the first opportunity which presented itself they tried to extricate themselves by force of arms. This was the unsuccessful 1914 Boer rebellion, which ended when some Boer war era generals were killed or imprisoned by the pro-British Union of South Africa government. ( Gen De La Rey was apparently killed by a stray bullet even before the rebellion could get under-way – this is a fishy explanation)
It is a little known fact that the manifesto which was issued by the 1914 Boer rebellion leaders contained as its primary demand the restoration of the Boer republics and the dissolution of the Union of South Africa.
It is thus unfair of the international world to regard the "Boers" as having been responsible for what happened in South Africa during the second part of the 20th century - the Boers were just as much victims of the colonial powers as were any other indigenous people of Africa.
Milner's words were true - by forcing the Boers into the Union of South Africa, he was forcing them to be subjugated by the broad South African British colony, and this has led directly to the situation the Boers find themselves in today.
8. An Indigenous People
The Union of South Africa led directly to the attempt to extend and hold the British originated policy of racial separation in South Africa - an attempt which ended with the election of April 1994 and the coming to power of the African National Congress in South Africa.
This change over of the reins of power does not however mean that the underlying causes of the downfall of the Union of South Africa (later the Republic of South Africa) have been removed. They are still there - namely the reality that there are numerous different ethnic groupings in the greater Southern Africa, all wrestling to establish their own territory and space.
The Boer nation is one of these groups. The Boers have not disappeared - the British Empire and their unitary state merely tried to define them out of existence - in vain.
The existence of the Boer nation has nothing to do with racism or apartheid - the Boers existed long before Apartheid, and continue to exist after Apartheid, for that matter. The Boers are a well established indigenous grouping who fought the first anti-colonial liberation wars in Africa.
If the Boers were, as the world might like to view them, just "white racists" then they would never have come into conflict with the White colonialists!
The subjugation of the Boers does not however negate the fact that they are a people all by themselves - they have their own unique history, their own traditions, own festival days, political dispensation, political philosophy, they had their own territory (state), own symbols, own flags(Vierkleur), anthems(Kent gij dat volk & Heft Burgers) and so on - all developed in Africa.
This then is truly an indigenous people - in contrast to the Afrikaners and British South Africans, who developed nothing new or original but remained loyal to their colonial masters' emblems and traditions.
The Boers do not want a state or territory for the "Whites" of South Africa. This is a falsehood which must be dispelled for once and for all. All the Boers want is an own independent territory, just as they had before the White colonialists took it away from them. Nothing more and nothing less will do.
This has nothing to do with race or racism - merely the desire of an indigenous people to be themselves and to rule themselves in their own territory - a right, incidentally, enshrined in the United Nations charter.
9. Conclusion
In summation then it can be clearly seen that there are differences between the cultural groupings making up the White South African population.
It is important to note that the cultural differences are to a large extent determined by the groups themselves, with no force or law creating these divisions.
Many English speaking South Africans, for example, will never agree to being defined as Boers, while equally some Afrikaans speaking Whites will never agree to being defined as Boers. The multi-racial nature of the Afrikaner grouping, as evidenced in the 1998 decision by the Afrikaner Bond (and discussed above) is another differentiating characteristic.
Perhaps one of the clearest differences in the cultures of Boers, Afrikaners and British South Africans is illustrated by the political divide. At the time of the referendum over the republic of South Africa, the Transvaal and Orange Free State voted overwhelmingly in favour of breaking ties with Britain, while the Cape and Natal voted in favour of staying on as a British vassal. Because of this division, it was only by the slimmest margin (51 percent) that the Republic was created. It was only the vote of the inhabitants of the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which clinched the Republic.
This north/south division continued to present times, with the north always being known as more conservative than the south.
This does not mean that only the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Boer Republics qualify as Boers. The concept of a Boer (as opposed to an Afrikaner or a British South African) is a cultural concept and is as such transferable.
Such assimilation must however be mutual - it is possible for anyone to become a member of any of the groupings mentioned - providing they are amenable to the notion, and providing the group they are assimilating into fully accept them as such. In this way it is possible for Afrikaners to join the British group (Sir Laurens van der Post being a prime example) and for British South Africans to join the Boer grouping in the same way that many Irish or other European nationalities have done.
The Boers then can ultimately be defined as a group with a common genetic heritage (European) and a common cultural heritage, which has its roots in the desire to be part of a new and independent nationhood.
Conclusion
A unitary state for a population such as South Africa, which consists of different nations, have elsewhere in the world brought about only chaos, friction, conflict and ultimately civil war. There can be no doubt that South Africa will ultimately yet again be divided up into different states(nations), in which each nation will govern itself.
There are some, but not Boers, who says it could be done on a basis of co-operative self-determination within a confederation of Southern African states.
The Confederation of potential nation states who pursues self-determination can stipulate and activate this process by means of a loose alliance pressurising the government, but is a loose idea without much ground.
If such action is conducted in concert with others, the attaining of the Con federal dispensation could be facilitated sooner rather than later.
The Boervolk(nation) however, has no alternative, but to make its stand, and will, as often in the past, walk the road alone, if need be.
The truth is that the Boers will not want to end up in a Confederal dispensation, as they remember what the British Union, which is similar, and only by name did it differ, did to them, so they will opt for a totally independent and sovereign state of their own, regardless of the consequences.
This the world, especially the western world, who has clearly made themselves the enemy of the Boers, by their support for all and sundry anti-Boer, should start looking at, and maybe reconsider in the near future, not just for the sake of the Boers, but also themselves.
This is no threat, but should be seen against the sea route and minerals as well as other factors.